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Why Two Female Witnesses Are Equal To One Male Witness In Islam?

  

1. Two female witnesses not always considered equal to one male

witness

There are no less than three verses in the Qur’an which speak about witnesses

without specifying man or woman.

a) While making a will of inheritance, two just persons are required as

witnesses. In Surah Maidah chapter 5 verse 106, the Glorious Qur’an says:

“Oh you who believe! When death approaches any of you, (take)

witnesses among yourself when making bequests,– two just persons

of your own (brotherhood) or others from outside if you are journeying

through the earth and the chance of death befalls you.”

[Al-Qur’an 5:106]

b) Two persons endued with justice in case of talaq.

“And take for witness two persons from among you, endued with

justice, and establish the evidence (as) before Allah”.

[Al-Qur’an 65:2]

c) Four witnesses are required in case of charge against chaste women

“And those who launch a charge against chaste women, and produce

not four witnesses (to support their allegatios) flog them with eighty

stripes; and reject their evidence even after: for such men are wicked

transgressors”

[Al-Qur’an 24:4]

2. Two female witnesses is equal to male witness only in financial

transaction

It is not true that two female witnesses are always considered as equal to only

one male witness. It is true only in certain cases. There are about five verses

in the Qur’an that mention witnesses, without specifying male or female. There

is only one verse in the Qur’an, that says two female witnesses are equal to one

male witness. This verse is Surah Baqarah, chapter 2 verse 282. This is the

longest verse in the Qur’an and deals with financial transactions. It says:

“Oh! ye who believe! When ye deal with each other, in transactions

involving future obligation in a fixed period of time reduce them to

writing and get two witnesses out of your own men and if there are not

two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses

so that if one of them errs the other can remind her.”

[Al-Qur’an 2:282]

This verse of the Qur’an deals only with financial transactions. In such cases,

it is advised to make an agreement in writing between the parties and take two

witnesses, preferably both of which should be men only. In case you cannot find

two men, then one man and two women would suffice.

For instance, suppose a person wants to undergo an operation for a particular

ailment. To confirm the treatment, he would prefer taking references from two

qualified surgeons. In case he is unable to find two surgeons, his second option

would be one surgeon and two general practitioners who are plain MBBS

doctors.

Similarly in financial transactions, two men are preferred. Islam expects men to

be the breadwin ners of their families. Since financial responsibility is

shouldered by men, they are expected to be well versed in financial transactions

as compared to women. As a second option, the witness can be one man and

two women, so that if one of the women errs the other can remind her. The

Arabic word used in the Qur’an is ‘Tazil’ which means ‘confused’ or ‘to err’.

Many have wrongly translated this word as ‘to forget’. Thus financial

transactions constitute the only case in which two female witnesses are equal

to one male witness.

3. Two female witnesses equal to one male witness even in the case

of murder

However, some scholars are of the opinion that the feminine attitude can also

have an effect on the witness in a murder case. In such circumstances a woman

is more terrified as compared to a man. Due to her emotional condition she can

get confused. Therefore, according to some jurists, even in cases of murder,

two female witnesses are equivalent to one male witness. In all other cases,

one female witness is equivalent to one male witness. In all other cases, one

female witness is equivalent to one male witness.

4. Qur’an clearly specifies that one female witness equal to one male

witness

There are some scholars who are of the opinion that the rule of two female

witnesses equal to one male witness should be applied to all the cases. This

cannot be agreed upon because one particular verse of the Qur’an from Surah

Noor chapter 24, verse 6 clearly equates one female witness and one male

witness:

“And those who launch a charge against their spouses, and have (in

support) no evidence but their own – their solitary evidence can be

received.”

[Al-Qur’an 24:6]

5. Solitary witness of Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) is

sufficient for Hadith to be accepted

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) the wife of the beloved Prophet has

narrated no less than 2220 Ahadith which are considered authentic only on her

solitary evidence. This is sufficient proof that one witness of a women can also

be accepted.

Many jurists agree that even one witness of a woman is sufficient for the

sighting of the crescent of the moon. Imagine one woman witness is sufficient

for one of the pillars of Islam, i.e. fasting and the whole Muslim community of

men and women agree and accept her witness! Some jurists say that one

witness is required at the beginning of Ramadaan and two witnesses at the end

of Ramadaan. It makes no difference whether the witnesses are men or women.

6. Female witnesses are preferred in some cases

Some incidents require only female witness and that of a male cannot be

accepted. For instance, in dealing with the problems of women, while giving the

burial bath i.e. ‘ghusl’ to a woman, the witness has to be a woman.

The seeming inequality of male and female witnesses in financial transactions

is not due to any inequality of the sexes in Islam. It is only due to the different

natures and roles of men and women in society as envisaged by Islam

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